Various forms of Chinese religions have long-standing and distinct psychosocial and behavioral functions on health and longevity e. Results of this study suggested that participation in religious activities is significantly associated with cognitive functioning among older Chinese.
For each subgroup, the same modeling strategies were applied. Religious institutions have had a continuing social prominence within Black communities that is reflected in the centrality of religion in contemporary African American life Taylor, Chatters and Levin View at Google Scholar Y.
Older Chinese with few other sources of information may find TV watching more intellectually challenging and informative. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Hypothesis3 Gender differentials in religious involvement can be expected such that the oldest-old women tend to report higher proportion of religious participation than the oldest-old men in China.
The Chinese version of MMSE was appropriately translated from the international standard of the MMSE questionnaire and adopted the necessary changes to make the questions understandable and answerable among ordinary Chinese oldest old, the majority of whom are illiterate [ 28 ].
There were no instances in which non-Hispanic whites indicated higher levels of religiosity, confirming the presence of fundamental race differences in responses to these indicators.
For example, research on Seventh Day Adventists congregations in New York indicates that a large influx of Black Caribbean immigrants has had a significant impact on the growth and composition of these congregations as a whole, transforming their character to reflect immigrant issues and concerns.
For instance, followers of Confucian teachings believe The gender differences in religious practices and participation virtues such as self-cultivations, chung loyaltyshu empathyand jen humaneness are imperative to develop and maintain deep and profound secular relationships with self, family, community, and state [ 18 ].
The first hypothesis is supported by a Pew Research Center analysis of data from 47 countries with measures of employment status and religious commitment.
A significant negative association between religious participation and cognitive impairment was found among the oldest-old and much of the association was mediated by positive psychological feelings and leisure activities.
Studies on this topic explore the possibility of social influences on how both sexes perform in cognitive and behavioral tests. Previous Research on Religion and Cognition Functioning Although religion and health association is well documented e. On the other hand, The Virgin Marythe mother of Jesus of Nazareth, is not associated with leadership or teaching, but is nonetheless a key figure in Catholicism.
Among women, both public religious activity and spiritual experiences maintained an independent association with the health and well-being.
View at Google Scholar Z. The first priority is the measurement improvement.
Then, a series of nested logistic regression models were examined to estimate how the odds of having cognitive impairment are associated with religious participation, control, meditating, and moderating factors.
Characteristics of the Oldest-Old in China, by Gender: Hypothesis 3 — Gender differentials in religious involvement can be expected such that the oldest-old women tend to report higher proportion of religious participation than the oldest-old men in China.
Hill and colleagues [ 4 ] investigated whether religious attendance was associated with slower rates of cognitive decline. Since women are generally more risk-averse, this theory posits, they turn to religion to avoid eternal punishment or to secure a place in heaven.
According to Zeng et al. Women reported higher proportion of religious participation, but the cognitive benefits of religious participation were stronger for men. The prevalence of cognitive impairment for oldest-old women was approximately 2.
In this paper, engaging in various leisure activities is considered as one of the important mediators linking religious participation and cognitive functioning among older Chinese. However, as discussed earlier, Caribbean Blacks who have immigrated to the U.
Chromosomal make up is important in human psychology. Hypothesis 4 — Religious participation is negatively associated with cognitive impairment, and the association is more for one gender group than for the other.
Gender-based medicine, also called "gender medicine", is the field of medicine that studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. After listwise deletion of missing values, the analytical sample was reduced to 8, Ellison of the University of Texas at San Antonio argue for more exploration of genetic factors.
Although this discussion has centered on religious involvement as it relates to the experience of immigration, it is important to recognize that diverse religious and spiritual traditions are well-established features of Black Caribbean life Stewart ; Maynard-Reid Some of those denominations ordain women to the diaconatebelieving this is encouraged by 1 Timothy Using data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of members of the Presbyterian Church USAKrause and colleagues [ 32 ] revealed that even though women receive more emotional support from coreligionists than men, it is men who are likely to enjoy the salutary effects of church-based support on health.
By inference, women are more religious because they have less risk-promoting testosterone.Sep 01, · Race and Ethnic Differences in Religious Involvement: African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites This study examined differences in religious participation and spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) and non-Hispanic Whites.
Race and gender differences. The Religious Time Bind: U.S. Work Hours and Religion David A Cotter investigate differences in religious practices and participation among couples school degree, some college or was a college graduate. To account for gender differences in participation we include a female dummy in our model.
We also run separate models for men. traditional gender attitudes and gender differences in religious be-liefs and behavior. Surprisingly, these data show no relationship Gender and Religiousness inality or religiousness.
Partly in reaction to these failures, a growing related to greater female religious participation. Finally, womenÕs sub. Religious Participation, Gender Differences, and Cognitive Impairment among the Oldest-Old in China there might be gender differences in religious participation such that the oldest-old men.
Identifying distinct ethnic and gender differences in community service might help to tailor and target volunteer recruitment efforts, as well as to critically examine current Extension practices and their appeal to various groups. (). Structural determinants of religious participation among Black Americans.
Review of Religious. research found that, for grades 2 to 11, there were no significant gender differences in math skills among the general population. and might include religious beliefs and practices about the roles and rights of men and women in government, education and worship; beliefs about the sex or gender of deities and religious figures; and.Download