Aristotle is one of the greatest thinkers in the history of western science and philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre.
It is unclear what thought is being expressed here, but perhaps Aristotle is merely trying to avoid a possible misunderstanding: Determining what is kalon is difficult b28—33, a24—30and the normal human aversion to embracing difficulties helps account for the scarcity of virtue b10— And that leads him to ask for an account of how the proper starting points of reasoning are to be determined.
Clearly, one is a re-working of the other, and although no single piece of evidence shows conclusively what their order is, it is widely assumed that the Nicomachean Ethics is a later and improved version of the Eudemian Ethics.
Sometimes only a small degree of anger is appropriate; but at other times, circumstances call for great anger. First of all, friendship seems to be so valued by people that no one would choose to live without friends.
Practical reasoning always presupposes that one has some end, some goal one is trying to achieve; and the task of reasoning is to determine how that goal is to be accomplished.
Plato holds that either the spirited part which houses anger, as well as other emotions or the appetitive part which houses the desire for physical pleasures can disrupt the dictates of reason and result in action contrary to reason.
The Middle Path was a minimal requirement for the meditative life, and not the source of virtue in itself. Plants and non-human animals seek to reproduce themselves because that is their way of participating in an unending series, and this is the closest they can come to the ceaseless thinking of the unmoved mover.
Intellectual virtues are in turn divided into two sorts: Since activities differ with respect to goodness and badness, some being worth choosing, others worth avoiding, and others neither, the same is true of pleasures as well.
In this discussion, Aristotle defines justice as having two different but related senses—general justice and particular justice. Perhaps, then, he realizes how little can be accomplished, in the study of ethics, to provide it with a rational foundation.
But 2 others are less successful than the average person in resisting these counter-pressures. But unless we can determine which good or goods happiness consists in, it is of little use to acknowledge that it is the highest end. The courageous person, for example, judges that some dangers are worth facing and others not, and experiences fear to a degree that is appropriate to his circumstances.
It is the exercise of virtue. Aristotle notes that one cannot have a large number of friends because of the amount of time and care that a virtuous friendship requires. Are these present in Book VI only in order to provide a contrast with practical wisdom, or is Aristotle saying that these too must be components of our goal?
But the good is something that cannot be improved upon in this way. The akratic person has not only this defect, but has the further flaw that he gives in to feeling rather than reason more often than the average person.
Later the medieval church scholasticism in Western Europe insisted on Thomist views and suppressed non-Aristotelian metaphysics. Some critics consider the Eudemian Ethics to be "less mature," while others, such as Kenny contend that the Eudemian Ethics is the more mature, and therefore later, work.
Consider someone who loves to wrestle, for example. For this reason, pleasure alone cannot constitute human happiness, for pleasure is what animals seek and human beings have higher capacities than animals.An Analysis of Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle Essay Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle’s advice on living an excellent life in college and beyond would focus on the path towards attaining happiness.
As the best, self-sufficient end and the highest form of good, happiness accompanies the acquisition of virtue through action and promotes. Happiness depends on living in accordance with appropriate virtues.
Virtue is a disposition rather than an activity. That is, a virtuous person is naturally disposed to behave in the right ways and for the right reasons, and to feel pleasure in behaving rightly. Virtue is a mean state between the extremes of excess and deficiency.
Aristotle aimed for ethics to be both an intellectual and a practical pursuit, with the ultimate goal of human well-being and happiness. Aristotle believed that being raised well and developing virtuous habits could help a person to live well.
Aristotle begins by laying down the investigation at hand: what is the highest human good? He determines that it's happiness (because this is the most complete good) and has to thrash out what this means in practical terms.
Aristotle devotes Book V of the Nicomachean Ethics to justice (this is also Book IV of the Eudemian Ethics). In this discussion, Aristotle defines justice as having two different but related senses—general justice and particular justice.
The achievement of happiness, according to Aristotle, is the end goal of every man. His reasoning is thus: All human activities are done in order to attain something that is .Download